Bible Notes Online - 1-Samuel 23 - ESV

v1-6: David heard that the Philistines were attacking Keilah. He showed concern for the people there, even with the risk involved. The Lord spoke words of reassurance to David, contrasting with the Lord being silent towards Saul. His men's reluctance was removed by the Lord speaking a second time.

We see too that David's introspective attitude (20.3; 21.12-13) was being changed.

It was at this time too that Abiathar arrived, after the rest of the priests had been killed.

v7-12: Saul heard about the events at Keilah. David found that the people would betray him to Saul, as in v19; 24.1; 26.1. How sad that those whom David had rescued now turned against him.

Again, David sought answers from the Lord God, and he received them.

v13-15: David now followed God's guidance, fleeing from place to place. His army had grown from 400 (22.2) to 600.

Saul was persistent, in pursuing David "day after day"; this was matched by God's consistent protection and also, later, by an increasingly strong army, which grew "day after day" (1 Chr 12.22).

v16-18: Jonathan, meaning only good for David, was able to find him and encourage him.

v19-23: The people of Ziph betrayed David. David returned there in 26.1.

Saul attempted to defame David, speaking of him as "very crafty"; others would thus distrust him. Saul was trying to destroy David's reputation as well as his life. This contrasts with Abimelech's testimony of David (22.14).

v24-29: With the information from the Ziphites, David was in real danger of capture. The timely message about the Philistines' attack saved him.