v1-8: Samuel gave Saul instructions. These were signs for Saul, demonstrating God's hand upon him, and the truth of Samuel's words. Saul would be wise to heed Samuel.
v1: Samuel anointed Saul, as leader over the Lord’s people. There is no ceremony, just something simple, but with prophetic significance.
v2: The matter of the donkeys, confirming Saul's own words, 9.20.
v3-4: The provision of the bread, a simple sign, showing God's power and provision.
v5: A reminder of the enemy in the camp. The Philistines had an outpost within Israel. This would have to be dealt with.
v5-6: A spiritual experience; Saul would know that God had met with him; this is described in v9-13. Samuel was not the only prophet in Israel; there was evidently a school of the prophets (as in 19.20; 2 Kings 6.1). They worshipped and prophesied with music and dance. The significance of these schools of prophets is not clear, and not all prophets came from them, e.g: Amos was not trained (Amos 7.14-15). It seems likely that God provided a method to train and release prophets among His people.
v7: Saul had to learn to behave as the occasion demanded, doing the right thing in God's sight.
v8: The command to wait at Gilgal; this was a test of Saul's obedience. Although we may know the presence of the Spirit of God, we must still obey what God says.
v9-13: God gave Saul another heart; this is truly God's work. David had a similar experience, see 16.13. Saul prophesised with the prophets, proclaiming the word of God, rather than predicting future events. The people were surprised that Saul was among the prophets; this was a sign to the people. Presumably there is a lesson here, that leaders must be spiritual people.
v14-16: Saul returned to his uncle, who asked about the donkeys. Saul's discretion kept him from speaking about the kingdom.
Saul had been chosen as the king of Israel, not because he excelled spiritually, but to fulfil God's words in 8.10-18.
v17-25: Samuel brought the people together, so the king could be chosen in public. This would confirm the private anointing Saul had received. God's way was that the man be chosen by lot.
v26-27: There was support for Saul, from those whose hearts God had touched. The work begun under Samuel continued, as God drew the people back to Himself. Some rejected God's choice. Saul held his peace; the Lord Jesus held His peace when men rejected Him. Judgment will come upon such, but will be delayed.